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タイトル: 繊毛:ユニークな構造と機能
その他のタイトル: Cilia: Unique Architecture and Cellular Functions
著者: 安達, 健
Adachi, Takeshi
豊泉, 龍児
Toyoizumi, Ryuji
茂木, 和枝
Mogi, Kazue
泉, 進
Izumi, Susumu
キーワード: cilia
basal body
発行日: 30-Jun-2013
出版者: 神奈川大学総合理学研究所
抄録: Cilia and flagella are protruding organelles observed on eukaryotic cell surfaces. Flagella are found on animal sperms and single-cell organisms, such as Chlamydomonas. Cells with flagella move forward by generating water flow. Cilia are grouped into motile or nonmotile types. Motile cilia beat coordinately and generate fluid flow. For example, Paramecium and Tetrahymena swim by beating thousands of cilia. In the human airway and oviduct, beating cilia remove foreign substances and transport oocytes. On the other hand, immotile cilia are observed in most cell types and act as cellular antennae. In vertebrates, immotile cilia are observed in brain, retina, olfactory epithelium, liver and kidney cells. Dysfunction of cilia causes various diseases, such as airway inflammation, mental retardation, retinal degeneration, obesity and kidney hypertrophy, which are called ciliopathies. Cilia are composed of three distinct compartments: axoneme, transition zone and the basal body. At the ciliary base, basal body consists of nine triplet microtubules arranged in 9-fold symmetry. In the ciliary shaft (axoneme), nine doublet microtubules extending from a basal body are observed. Between the base and shaft, the transition zone sorts proteins localized in cilia. Inside cilia, ciliary proteins are bidirectionally transported along the axoneme by kinesin and dynein motor proteins. The 9-fold symmetry and protein transport system are well conserved across phylogeny. Cilia of unicellular organisms are essential for cell motility and cilia of multicellular organisms are important for sensory perception, fluid flow generation and organ development. In this review, we will briefly describe various types of cilia, molecular components of cilia and cilia function at the organ level.
内容記述: 総説
ISSN: 1880-0483


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